And, like car designers, aircraft manufacturers makers are

Radical planes take shape

Fake Handbags Look up into the skies today at a passing aeroplane and the view is not that much different to the one you would good quality replica bags have seen 60 years ago. Then and now, most airliners have two wings, a cigar shaped fuselage and a trio of vertical and horizontal stabilizers at the tail. If it isn broke, the mantra has been, why fix it, particularly when your design needs to travel through the air at several hundred miles an hour packed with people. Fake Handbags

Handbags Replica But that conservative view could soon change. Rising fuel prices, increasingly stringent pollution limits, as well as a surge in demand for air travel, mean plane designers are going back to their drawing boards. And, now, radical new shapes and engine technologies are beginning to emerge, promising the biggest shake up in air travel since de Haviland introduced the first commercial jet airliner in 1952. Handbags Replica

Of course, it would be wrong to say nothing has changed in the last few decades, says Rich Wahls, an aerodynamicist at Nasa Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. model airliners don come out every year like cars, but it not as high end replica bags if they haven been evolving buy replica bags under the skin the whole time. There so replica designer backpacks much more technology in there nowadays.

replica handbags china Earlier improvements went mostly unnoticed 7a replica bags wholesale because they focused on building better and quieter turbine engines with higher performance and improved fuel consumption. There have also been huge strides in computer controls and fly by wire systems, which make a big difference to the buy replica bags online pilot, but not to the passengers. And in recent years, the biggest development has been the use of strong, but lightweight plastics and composite materials rather than metals, reducing the weight of planes and the amount of fuel they need to burn. This has also allowed the development of new planes like the giant Airbus A380 and the Boeing Dreamliner. replica handbags china

But despite these advances, aviation engineers know there is still much to be done. Take fuel prices, for instance, which have soared in recent years. Despite modern planes being 60% to 70% more efficient than those built 60 years ago, aviation fuel expenditures now account for replica bags from china a quarter replica bags buy online of an airlines operating expenses, Click This Link placing them on a par with labor costs. In 2011, large US air carriers paid half again as much for fuel as what they paid in 2000. Add the fact that global airline travel is expected to grow to 3.3 billion annually by 2014 (up one third from 2009), and it clear why engineers are searching for new ways to boost performance.

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One of the biggest efforts to rethink the airplane is being conducted by Nasa Subsonic Fixed Wing program, a collaboration between the US aerospace agency and industrial partners including Boeing, GE, high quality designer replica Lockheed Martin, replica bags Northrop Grumman and Pratt Whitney, as well as academic institutions such as Massachusetts Institute of Technology. looking to see if we can develop technologies that can get us yet another 60 to 70% improvement in fuel efficiency, says Wahls. In addition, the project wants to engineer new designs with a 71 decibel decrease in noise emissions and a four fifths fall in nitrogen oxide pollutants from current standards. And, best replica bags online if these kinds of goals weren already aggressive enough, the team wants any new technology to enter service between 2030 and 2035 a mere blink of an eye in an industry in which commercial aircraft can have multi decade life spans.

cheap replica handbags are trying to determine which technologies are worth pursuing; those that might get us anywhere near our goals, says Wahls boss, Ruben Del Rosario, subsonic fixed wing program manager. cheap replica handbags

Fake Designer Bags Planes under investigation by Nasa range from the extreme to the slightly more conventional. For example, Boeing Sugar Volt is a design that came about as part of the manufacturers Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (Sugar) project. The design like many new concepts is based around the idea of maximizing the plane lift. This reduces the amount of power needed to keep the plane in the air, as well as the amount of fuel it must burn. Fake Designer Bags

The Sugar Volt does this by using very long, narrow, flexible wings. They are replica bags online so long that engineers needed to brace them with under wing replica designer bags wholesale truss support struts, making the aircraft resemble the Piper Cub and other light, high winged planes. The aaa replica bags SugarVolt wings are extended in order to increase lift, allowing shorter take off distances and requiring less power in flight. They are so long, in fact, that the Boeing designers may have to fit them with hinges so that they could fit in existing airports and boarding gates.

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There are, however, are other ways to improve performance than just making longer wings. A team from MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, for example, put forward the D8 for consideration by Nasa. This aircraft design, features a double wide fuselage composed of two standard body cylinders melded together side by side, as well as low swept wings that cut drag and weight. The idea of the wider body shape is to increase lift generated by the fuselage, rather than it being mostly dead weight slung between two wings. The extra lift and reduced drag cuts back on the quantity of fuel that the luxury replica bags engines must burn. If the jet were built today from standard aluminum alloys it could provide a 50% reduction in fuel use, according to the MIT designers; a low mass polymer composite version could give 70% efficiency gains. In addition, because the D8 turbine engines replica designer bags sit on top of the fuselage in a box shaped tail, they would cut the amount of engine noise broadcast to the ground.

The D8 idea for generating greater lift is taken to an extreme in another design called the N3 X hybrid wing body airplane, which Nasa developed in house. At first glance, the N3 X looks a lot like a so called flying wing design, used by planes such as the US Air Force B 2 stealth bomber. These comprise a single, thick triangular wing that enclose all of the plane contents cockpit, stores, engines, fuel tanks and flight surfaces. But, unlike the B 2 flying wing, the N3 X hybrid wing body also features two thin, rather conventional wings attached to the sides of its ultra wide fuselage.

replica Purse The primary advantage of the hybrid, or blended, wing body design is better fuel efficiency, Del Rosario says. Like a flying wing, the hybrid aircraft produces lift with its entire aerodynamic airframe, thus ridding itself of the drag associated with the cylindrical fuselage and the tail surfaces of a conventional plane. As with the D8, the more lift that can be produced overall, the less effort is needed from the engines, which in turn means less fuel must be burned. Fuel efficiency could be raised further by building the airframe from lightweight polymer composite materials instead of metals, Del Rosario says. replica Purse

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Engineers are aware, however, that new airframe shapes will only get them part of the way to their goals. To really make a difference, particularly to fuel consumption and engine noise, planes will also need radically new propulsion systems mounted or integrated into the airframe in novel ways. And, like car designers, aircraft manufacturers makers are beginning to explore the possibilities of electric and hybrid engines.

Designer Replica Bags Boeing Sugar Volt concept, for example, would use a hybrid electric propulsion system that combines fuel burning (turbine) engines, electric motors and electrochemical storage batteries propulsion concept not totally unlike that inside a Toyota Prius. The hybrid system would let the operators choose to draw engine power from the turbines or the batteries, whichever provides the most benefit for the specific segment of the flight landing, cruise, and so forth. can envision a 737 class airliner using the combination of turbine and electric power for take off and then, depending on the situation, switching over to cruise on one or the other, says Marty Bradley, principal investigator for subsonic ultra green aircraft research at Boeing Research and Technology in Bellevue, Washington. Designer Replica Bags

purse replica handbags Nasa N3 X is also designed around a completely new engine concept, called turboelectric distributed propulsion. It splits the main functions of a standard turbine engine in two best replica designer generating power by burning fuel and creating thrust by blowing air rearward with a large fan. purse replica handbags

The idea is to use two large turbine engines to drive electric generators that would produce electricity to power 15 electric motor driven, thrust producing fans that would be embedded across the top bag replica high quality rear of the broad fuselage. Such a configuration could be very efficient, Del Rosario says. The array of small electric propulsion fans at the stern of N3 X enables the designers to cut drag significantly by accelerating the flow of drag causing air moving over the upper surface of the fuselage, keeping efficiency sapping air friction at a minimum. Like the D8, the top mounted propulsor fans would also effectively lower noise emissions because the body would come between them and the ground below.

Replica Designer Handbags The airliner concept may have an Achilles heel, though. For such a system to reach maximum fuel efficiency targets, the electronics, generators and motors may need to be built from superconducting (zero resistance) materials, meaning the jet electrics would have to be super cooled by liquid hydrogen at ( or liquid nitrogen at 196C (321F) to make them work. This cryogenic technology is not yet fully practical and could take decades to prove out. Recent studies indicate, however, that substantial fuel consumption gains could still be obtained by using existing electrical technology running at ambient temperatures, according to Del Rosario. Replica Designer Handbags

If that scheme sounds far out, other manufacturers are looking at developing fully electric systems for the 2050 time frame. Aircraft engineers and designers at Eads, the parent firm of Airbus, for instance, have proposed a rather extreme concept called the Voltaire. The bulbous, 50 seat fuselage with two, high quality replica bags long slender wings and a giant propeller on the tail, make it resemble a submarine. The concept, first put forward in 2011, would use next generation batteries to power high efficiency superconducting electric motors that would in turn drive the giant counter rotating propellers mounted in a cylindrical shroud at the tail. Unlike any of the Nasa concepts, it is designed to be zero emission.

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wholesale replica designer handbags However, anyone thinking that the electric Voltaire airliner may fly any time soon, needs to think again, says Johannes Stuhlberger, head of the global innovation network, power and replica wallets flight propulsion best replica bags at Eads. development of electric aircraft not only best replica designer bags depends on the speed at which battery technology improves, but also how fast electrical equipment the motors get better. Electric motors would need efficiencies of around 95%, he adds, noting that for any new system to become a reality will require improvements in the power to mass ratio of the entire propulsion system, while still keeping it affordable. wholesale replica designer handbags

Replica Bags Wholesale In the shorter term, engineers at the Airbus group are trying to reduce fuel consumption emissions by developing novel launch systems, similar to those found on naval aircraft carriers. In one radical concept, a low slung carriage vehicle with an airliner mounted on its back would accelerate down the tarmac high replica bags and loft the plane into the air. Such a device would substantially reduce the initial power required for a passenger plane to take off. Airbus envisages the eco climb system moving into position automatically and assisting airliners to climb steeper and reach cruising altitude faster and from shorter runways. Replica Bags Wholesale

Designer Fake Bags Of course, all of these developments will undoubtedly lead to changes in the passengers in flight experience. Catapult take offs will likely mean passengers will be thrust back into their seats more firmly than happens now. Ultra wide bodied planes will likely mean fewer window per seat for the occupants and their larger seat capacities could also lead to slower passenger deplaning procedures both at the airport and in emergency landing situations. But there will also be benefits from these new wider spaces, which could, for example, accommodate large communal social spaces for kids more commonly found on cruise ships, whilst quiet electric engines could mean a good night sleep for travelers normally disturbed by the drone of turbine engines. Designer Fake Bags

replica handbags online the extra carrots in the new designs worth the extra effort and costs they entail? asks Nasa Wahls. Only time will tell. Many of these concepts are just that: concepts that are destined never to become a reality. However, like concept cars that push what is technologically possible on the road, these craft will probably inform the design of future airliners. replica handbags online

Replica Bags So, when you gaze up at cheap designer bags replica the skies designer replica luggage in twenty years time, perhaps the airplane passing by will look different from those you grew up with after all. Replica Bags

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